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Abdominal hernia is the protrusion of internal organs from the cavity, which they occupy in a healthy state, under the skin or in the peritoneum due to defects in the muscular layer. Visually, a hernia of the abdomen is defined as protrusion, and when palpating is characterized as a solid formation. Protrusion in the peritoneum in one of the most common surgical pathologies, is more common in men than in women. Many people mistakenly believe that abdominal hernias are exclusively congenital, i.e. they represent a development anomaly. It is not necessary to be born with this pathology - if there are triggering factors, the disease manifests in adulthood.

Why is hernia dangerous? 

The main danger is a strangulation of the hernia and internal organs, which leads to tissue necrosis, acute pain and subsequent peritonitis. The most common are inguinal hernia and abdominal hernia, which is divided into subumbilical and umbilical.

Why abdominal hernia occurs: contributing factors

The main cause of abnormal hernia is the gradual or prompt increase in intra-abdominal pressure that results from the action of certain negative factors. As a rule, in order for hernia to emerge, they have to act on the body for a long time.

Absolute factors:

  • Genetic predisposition that is often accompanied by ailments such as varicose veins and hemorrhoids.
  • Peculiarity of physiology expressed in the weakness of the abdominal muscles.
  • Different types of injuries, frequent surgery.
  • Significant systematic physical exertion, provoking hernia of the abdomen.
  • Pregnancy, complicated childbirth.
  • The presence of intraperitoneal tumors.

Relative factors:

  • Excessive adipose tissue 
  • A strong cough that develops in many lung pathologies.
  • Urinary disorders.
  • Chronic constipation.
  • Some chronic diseases of the internal organs - cirrhosis, tuberculosis, polio, limb paralysis, etc.
  • Lack of protein in the body.
  • Strong emotional reactions are uncontrollable laughter or cry.
  • Unbalanced diet.

Clinical manifestations of abdominal hernia:

  • directly the protrusion in the peritoneum in the form of a tumor the size of a small berry to a watermelon;
  • pain, often irradiated to different organs - pancreas, waist, scrotum, sacrum;
  • burning sensation and pain behind the sternum (in the presence of diaphragmatic hernia);
  • nausea, vomiting, heartburn, constipation (in some cases);
  • general weakness, malaise.


There are many varieties of abdominal hernias, which are divided into groups by different criteria. 

1. Depending on the location:

  • external hernias;
  • internal hernia.

2. Depending on the localization:

  • umbilical;
  • groin;
  • postoperative;
  • epigastric;
  • thigh;
  • lumbar;
  • hernia of the linea alba;
  • protrusion of diaphragm nutritive opening;
  • ventral.

3. Depending on the volume of protrusion:

  • full;
  • partial.

4. Depending on the cause:

  • congenital, more common in newborns as a result of abnormal abdominal wall development;
  • acquired developing under the influence of harmful factors.

How to get rid of abdominal hernias: therapeutic tactics

The most effective treatment of abdominal hernia is to remove or manage it during surgery, as protrusion can increase, posing a real health threat. If the limitation of the internal organs is diagnosed, the removal of the abdominal hernia is done urgently. Timely and qualitatively made surgery performed by an experienced surgeon significantly increases the chances of complete recovery without further risks. Surgical procedures for removal of abdominal hernia can be divided into two types:

  • classic open surgery, during which the peritoneum is dissected and then the tumor is managed or removed;
  • endoscopic and laparoscopic operations that do not require cutting the peritoneum - removal of the hernia is performed through compact openings - punctures.

Conservative treatment avoids the development of complications and relieves unpleasant symptoms, but does not help to get rid of hernia. Conservative treatment methods include:

  • taking medicines;
  • establishment and neutralization of indirect or direct causes that increase in intra-abdominal pressure;
  • a strict diet;
  • therapeutic gymnastics;
  • use of a special support band;
  • massage.

When it comes to pediatric pathology, which is often revealed in a maternity hospital, there is a high likelihood of disappearance of hernia in the process of growth, so such children are observed and prescribed maintenance therapy. The presence of abdominal hernia affects the quality of life of a person: pathological formation not only complicates activity, but also leads to disorders in the emotional sphere, reduces self-esteem. At the first suspicions and symptoms it is necessary to visit an expert urgently to determine the main directions of therapeutic care. Abdominal hernia is a very insidious disease that initially does not cause inconvenience, but it develops further and at some point can provoke a threat to life. Therefore, it is strongly discouraged to self-medicate and use so-called "folk" methods to eliminate unpleasant symptoms.

Appendicitis is one of the most common diseases of the digestive system, which is treated surgically. In this case, the disease is considered one of the most dangerous, because it has serious consequences. It occurs very quickly and causes life-threatening complications. Approximately 10% of people have appendicitis, the likelihood of getting the pathology is quite high throughout their lives. We will tell you what symptoms appendicitis has, how to recognize it in time, what to do and how to treat it.

Acute appendicitis: symptomatology, how to determine, treatment methods

Acute appendicitis can develop in anyone regardless of gender and age. Statistics show that it most often appears in people under 40 years of age. Men are more commonly affected by age of 20, but women predominate among patients aged 20-40 years. Then the likelihood of appendicitis is reduced, but it does not disappear completely. The disease can even affect the elderly.

Doctors regularly perform operations on this organ, but the functions of the appendix have not yet been fully understood. Previously, it was believed to be a rudiment that appeared in humans from herbivorous ancestors. Today, its function is completely unnecessary.

However, later there were reasons to believe that the appendix plays a rather important role in endocrine processes, as well as affecting the immune system. It helps to create the intestine microbiota. This conclusion was reached in the study of the patient's body after surgery. After appendicitis was removed, experts observed the person, paying attention to the changes. The number of beneficial microorganisms was significantly less, the functioning of the intestine was reduced.

However, the appendix is not a vital organ, people can normally exist without it. If there is a suspicion of appendicitis, surgery should be performed immediately, otherwise it may have serious consequences, including death.

Which side is appendicitis on?

If someone is asked where appendicitis is, they will at least think a little more. Despite such a simple question, about a third of people answer it incorrectly. Someone points to the lower abdomen on the left, someone points to the right, closer to the side. So let's understand which side is appendicitis on.

First of all, it should be understood that appendicitis is an inflammatory process in an organ called the appendix. It is located in the lower intestine. In normal condition, it looks like a small tube, the length of which varies from 50 to 150 mm. The diameter is not more than 10 millimeters. It does not have a through passage and branches off from the caecum.

The appendix is located in the lower abdomen, on the right side. It is close to the inguinal region, and an acute painful condition occurs there. The causes of appendicitis have not yet been thoroughly studied, and doctors determine a number of factors that provoke the development of this pathology. Therefore, if you find symptoms of appendicitis, you should immediately consult a doctor and be prepared for a surgery.

Symptoms of appendicitis

Symptoms of appendicitis appear quite clearly, but even irrespective of severe pain and other factors that indicate the presence of inflammation, people cannot always identify the problem in time. We will tell you what are the main symptoms of appendicitis, how to notice the pathology and inflammation in time and what to do in such a situation.

If acute appendicitis occurs in a child, he or she will complain of abdominal pain. But do not immediately raise panic, because the pain can occur for other reasons. The main rule in this situation is to keep calm and take consistent steps for providing the first aid. Detecting symptoms in an adult is not different.

Appendicitis develops gradually, but the inflammation that occurs with the disease affects the body immediately. The appendix begins to swell in the first few hours after the start of the inflammatory process. It is gradually filled with pus. In the absence of surgery within 3-4 days the sack will burst and pus will drain into the abdominal cavity. Therefore, when having acute appendicitis, you should urgently consult a doctor for help, call an ambulance and immediately go to surgery.

Characteristic features of appendicitis

There are major symptoms that indicate acute appendicitis. The most important symptom that manifests itself first is severe abdominal pain. Moreover, it does not remain in one place and constantly moves. It can occur in the upper abdomen, then manifest in the right or left side. Sometimes pain irradiates to an anus or ribs. Here are the signs of appendicitis:

  • severe abdominal pain;
  • when pressed pain is significantly increased;
  • abdominal muscles are constantly tense;
  • if you lie down and press up your legs, the pain will gradually subside: this is one of the symptoms that can determine the presence of inflammation in the appendix (the patient constantly takes such a pose);
  • with acute form of the disease regularly nausea and vomiting attacks are observed;
  • the nature of the stool is significantly changed,  sometimes constipation or diarrhea;
  • body temperature rises.

These are the most obvious symptoms that can determine appendicitis. If there is at least a slight suspicion of pathology, you should immediately go to the doctor and have a diagnosis. You can come to our clinic and undergo a comprehensive examination of the body. When confirming the diagnosis in acute form, surgery will be indicated.

Particular attention should be paid to children and the elderly. They cannot always determine the nature of the pain, understand what the problem is. The child becomes motionless, refuses to eat, cries all the time. The pain in elderly may not be so active, the signs are not so pronounced, so the symptoms of inflammation of the appendicitis may be not very characteristic.

Atypical forms and symptoms

In addition to the main symptoms, there are unusual ones that may indicate acute appendicitis. They are caused by specific forms of the disease that are common in patients. Let's look at the atypical causes of appendicitis and their forms:

  1. Empyema. An unusual form of appendicitis, which has a slow development. There is no process of moving pain, it immediately strikes on one side and does not subside.
  2. Retrocaecal appendicitis. The inflammation of the abdominal area is very weak, but the intestine is disturbed. The main symptom is a liquid stool that last for a long time. The person feels pain in the lumbar region, periodically it irradiates to the thigh.
  3. Left-sided appendicitis. Characteristic are the standard symptoms, but most often they appear in the left side. This is one of the most dangerous types of appendicitis because one does not even suspect that there is a problem in the specified organ. Many people are accustomed to having appendicitis on the right side, and when symptoms appear in the opposite direction, not everyone thinks about appendicitis.
  4. Pelvic appendicitis. It is an atypical form that is diagnosed in women. Fever, burning in the umbilical area is considered a symptom.

As you can see, in addition to the initial (typical) form of the ailment, there are other manifestations that indicate the presence of appendicitis. Even if the characteristic symptoms are felt not on the side of appendicitis, but there is an assumption that the inflammation may be in this organ, it is worth going to the hospital. If signs appear clearly, an ambulance should be called.

First aid: what to do to stop the pain

A patient with appendicitis should immediately go to the clinic. In the case of signs indicating the damage to the organ, an ambulance should be called, it is dangerous to move on your own. This is due to the fact that the sac with pus can burst and damage the abdominal cavity. But before you see a doctor, you should give yourself first aid. These actions will partially help to manage the pain and to avoid the consequences. First aid for the disease is:

  1. first of all, the doctor should be called. This can be done by relatives if they are nearby or call the clinic yourself;
  2. the main mistake of most patients is the use of painkillers. We understand that appendicitis hurts, it is difficult to endure, but the use of any medication can prevent doctors from determining the right diagnosis and degree of damage to the body. It is worth giving up painkillers before the doctors arrive;
  3. it is forbidden to eat any food or even drink any liquid. If you really want water, you can make a couple of sips. But not more;
  4. one of the most dangerous things is to apply a hot water bottle to the place of damage. Heat only exacerbates the inflammation process and often leads to rupture of the organ. This action should be completely eliminated;
  5. the patient should be calm, in a horizontal position. Discuss with the doctors what to do next, pay attention to the symptoms, telling them all in detail. Even if the pain has stopped, you still need help.

These actions will not only reduce the onset of symptoms, but also save health and even life. This applies to both adults and children. The causes of the disease are numerous, so you need to monitor your feelings, especially the symptoms. If they make themselves obvious, this is a sign to check.

What is the main cause of appendicitis?

Experts are studying in detail the issue of the development of this pathology, but it is still not possible to understand why appendicitis occurs. The only thing that came to the conclusion is that appendicitis appears to be caused by more than one factor. There are a number of causes that are lead to acute appendicitis.

It is believed that the major cause of appendicitis is blockage of the appendix. This can occur due to the ingress of feces into the process, or if a foreign body enters it. It is also caused by compression of the appendix due to the development of adhesion processes. It leads to inflammation, which affects the the organ and is the main cause of appendicitis.

Other causes of the disease

The main cause of appendicitis is organ blockage, but there are a number of other factors that provoke inflammation. Let's figure out why appendicitis occurs.

If appendicitis hurts, then there are factors that provoke the pathology. In most cases, it is the bacteria that infect the body. These include enterococci, staphylococci, escherichia coli and others. A sign of the presence of these bacteria is abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, lack of appetite. That is why if you have a stomach ache, you should call in a doctor and undergo an examination procedure. The causes of appendicitis include:

  • spasms of blood vessels that supply the organ;
  • trauma to the abdomen;
  • tendency to constipation;
  • the pathogen is a poor intestine peristalsis;
  • lack of vegetable fibers in diet;
  • the presence of parasites;
  • regular overeating;
  • consumption of poor-quality food;
  • acute form of infectious lesions;
  • bad habits;
  • reduced immunity level;
  • the disease can also occur due to frequent stress;
  • lack of valuable vitamins;
  • displacement of the appendix due to injury, pregnancy, enlargement of the uterus.

These are the main factors contributing to the development of the disease. If you have at least the slightest symptom of appendicitis, you should respond immediately. If you suspect appendicitis, contact a health care center. We carry out professional treatment of appendicitis, help to avoid consequences and completely restore your health. Choose quality treatment to get rid of the disease.

Why can it hurt on the other side

You know which side the appendicitis is on, ideally, this area should suffer the most. But it happens that the disease starts from the other side. This is not a characteristic symptom, so it is not always possible to understand it timely that there are problems with appendicitis. Why does it hurt on the left side:

  • left-sided pathology develops, affecting mainly left area;
  • the onset of pain is variable: first, the appendicitis side is affected, then the opposite side;
  • a phantom sensation is created whereby the pain seems to be present on the other side.

Regardless of whether the pain is where the appendicitis is located, or quite on the other side, you should visit the clinic if you have any suspicion. The appendix should be checked for pathologies.

Diagnostics of the appendicitis  

In case of suspected appendicitis, primary diagnosis is assigned. It allows to separate the symptoms inflammation of the appendix from other pathologies that may develop in the gastrointestinal tract. For this purpose, a visual examination of the patient is used, to determine the first signs in the form of nausea, vomiting. Palpation is also performed to determine pain rate. If the patient is suffering from gastrointestinal ailments, they must tell the doctor about it to avoid misdiagnosis.

The initial examination of the patient also allows to notice the tense abdomen and other factors that are the signs of the acute process onset. The patient should be admitted to the clinic and undergo further diagnostics.

What does the diagnostics of suspected appendicitis include

At signs of an acute form of this disease it is necessary to study the body in detail, the person is appointed by a number of procedures allowing to confirm the diagnosis. Effective methods of diagnosis include:

  • ultrasound of the abdomen;
  • computed tomography;
  • MRI;
  • clinical analysis of blood and urine;
  • laparoscopic examination;
  • X-ray examination of the abdominal cavity.

At diagnosis, the doctor recognizes the disease and will indicate further treatment. The problem is that many of the symptoms are related to other pathologies, including pancreatitis, ulcers, gastroenteritis, and others. Nausea attacks are also present with renal colic, abdominal stretching. Diagnostics of appendicitis can accurately determine the pathology and determine treatment methods.

Laparoscopic examination is the best method to confirm the diagnosis. The doctor makes a small incision in the abdomen and inserts a tube to make the analysis. It is also possible to perform appendectomy using the same method.

Which doctor to consult

When the first unpleasant sensations occur, patients begin to panic. Often, they do not know which doctor to consult. First of all, the patient should call an ambulance. Pathology refers to urgent diseases that have an acute type of course, so you need to call an emergency as soon as possible. In the future, the treatment will be done by an experienced surgeon.

Our medical center employs highly professional doctors who have extensive work experience. They will make all necessary tests and indicate effective treatment for acute appendicitis. Doctors will prepare you for the surgery and will accompany you to complete recovery.

Treatment of appendicitis

When the first signs of appendicitis are noticeable, it indicates that you should visit a medical center immediately. It is better if a person manages to visit a medical institution on their own, rather than bringing it to the emergency call. Unfortunately, the processes take place immediately, after 2-3 days the condition is approaching critical. That is why it is important to know how appendicitis begins and what to do in this case.

The treatment process often goes through surgery. But there are times when surgery is impossible or there is no great need for it. In the acute condition, other methods are excluded, but with timely treatment, the doctor may suggest alternative methods.

What causes appendicitis in children and adults

As mentioned above, this ailment has no age, it happens in both adults and children. The signs are quite clear at any age, but children may misinterpret the symptoms, not identify the side in which the pain occurs. Parents need to understand the stages of the onset of the disease. For this purpose it is necessary to know why there is an acute pathological process.

First and foremost the blame is on the food. It is not for nothing that parents tell children that it is not allowed to eat green apricots or seeds with a shell. The older generation also neglects healthy food. Because of this, the metabolic processes are disturbed and there is a blockage of the organ.

There is another reason for this: disturbance of the gastrointestinal tract. In this case, the likelihood of developing other pathologies increases. Patients often point to diseases associated with pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.

Children can remain silent about abdominal injuries. It is worth checking the child regularly, if you suspect damage, you should go to a clinic where the necessary tests can be performed.

If appendicitis hurts, treatment should be started immediately. In no case can you cope with the disease by yourself, if there is the slightest suspicion of appendicitis - immediately call in the doctor.

Appendix treatment: how to eliminate inflammation

In order not to give appendicitis an opportunity to hit the body, an operation is performed. The disease is treated by an experienced surgeon, the task is to remove the appendix. If the inflammatory process is acute, then the traditional method of operation, with an open incision, is used. There is also a laparoscopic method that allows to remove the appendix directly while studying the patient's condition.

Once appendicitis is removed, the person is placed in the ward for further recovery. After the operation, the patient should be in a supine state. It is strictly forbidden to get up and to eat any food for 12 hours. In the future, you can start to move a bit, eat foods that are allowed by the doctor. The recovery period takes about 1 week. Sometimes the patient's condition aggravates, the temperature rises, then the recovery period can be prolonged up to 2 weeks.

If surgery is impossible for some reason, the doctor prescribes conservative therapy. It involves the use of antibiotics and other pharmacological preparations. The patient is placed in a hospital.

It is recommended to undergo additional therapy to improve one’s health. It is necessary to monitor the development and recovery of the organism after surgery, to begin physical exercises, but only under the supervision of an experienced specialist. The loads should be moderate. 

Is it possible to cure appendicitis by folk remedies

When unpleasant sensations of appendicitis appear, many patients want to help themselves. For this purpose they begin to use non-traditional methods of influence on the body. But some do not even know where appendicitis is, let alone the treatment methods.

It is worth knowing that this disease cannot be cured by folk remedies. If you have any signs that indicate a pathology, you should immediately call a doctor or go to a medical center. With the development of pathological processes, health will deteriorate. Folk recipes will not save the rupture of the appendix, and if it happens, the pus will enter the abdominal cavity. This is fatal. On external grounds it is difficult to recognize if it is the problem with appendix, or with gastrointestinal tract. Only a specialist can differentiate.

Indications for surgery

In this type of ailment in most cases, the surgery has to be done. This is the best solution, especially since this body does not perform particularly important functions. With the acute diagnosis it is necessary to carry out surgical treatment immediately. The indications for the operation are as follows:

  • there are all signs of an acute inflammatory process;
  • an appendix rupture occurs and this requires immediate aid;
  • the main indication for surgery is the critical condition of the patient;
  • with suspected further development of the pathology, even if the condition is satisfactory at that moment, but there are likely to be serious problems in the future.

If the doctor has detected a sign of the pathology, you should go for surgery.

Contraindications for acute appendicitis

With the development of technology and modern equipment, the process of surgery is quite simple. The patient is administered anesthesia, he will not feel anything. If there is an indication for a surgery, it is imperative to refer to this method.

However, in some cases, the clinic is not able to treat appendicitis by removal. This is due to a number of factors that do not allow this procedure to be performed properly.

What conditions make it impossible to carry out the operation

As such there are no contraindications to the operation, unless the patient is not in the agonal stage. In other words, if he is already in his deathbed and surgery will not be able to correct the condition, then doctors refuse to carry out such procedures.

Contraindications for the operation of acute appendicitis

If you find even a small symptom, you should immediately go to a medical center. Contraindications for acute appendicitis are virtually nonexistent, but there are a number of factors that limit the ability to remove the appendix. With the acute manifestation of the illness they are ignored, as urgent help is needed. But in the case of planned organ removal, if inflammation is detected timely, it is worth paying attention to such factors as:

  • severe heart disease;
  • serious lung problems;
  • impaired liver function;
  • disturbance in kidney function.

In this case, the specialist can choose an alternative method and try to eliminate the inflammatory processes with the help of antibiotics and other pharmacological preparations. In this case, the patient must stay in the hospital, as doctors will monitor the condition.

The problem may occur during pregnancy. Due to the enlargement of the size of the uterus, the appendix shrinks, which leads to a disturbance of its functionality. In this case, the doctor decides whether the surgery should be performed. The risks of using antibiotics and other drugs, as well as the surgical process itself, are evaluated. It is worth noting that local anesthesia and general anesthesia are used. Both of these methods can harm mother and baby. Therefore, experts, based on a lot of factors, make decisions on the spot.

Examination and treatment prices 

Medical aid is needed in every case of appendicitis. In no case can you try to get rid of inflammation yourself. But many are concerned about the cost of the surgery, what it takes and where to go.

The price of such services depends on the set of measures that will be taken. At first the examination is performed, according to the signs the doctor will determine the degree of threat. A series of procedures, including surgery, are now scheduled. You can find out the prices on our site and call us for more information. The consultant will answer all the questions.

Benefits of treatment at  «YUZKO MEDICAL CENTER»

Our center has been helping people since 1995. The benefits of the medical center are:

  • Modern equipment is used. Thanks to the professional technique, the specialists make a diagnosis with precision, perform complex surgical procedures, as safely as possible help to eliminate various pathologies. All equipment is certified and regularly inspected.
  • Only experienced doctors work here. Our specialists regularly study at world medical centers, attend symposia, scientific conferences. But the most important thing is real experience and constant practice. You will be in safe hands.
  • Friendly staff. They will always talk to you politely, explain all the details of the research, tell you about the course of recovery. You will receive detailed information, can ask questions and receive polite and detailed answers.
  • Great service. There are no queues in our center because everything is planned properly. Records are kept to specialists, staff guides you, will help you to collect the necessary documents. Patients and their health are above all.
  • The presence of a curator. An experienced specialist will be online at any time.

Do not allow appendicitis to damage your health. Call your medical center immediately after a dangerous symptom occurs and we will help immediately. Every minute is dear, do not waste your time and get highly professional help from specialists.

Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder, it develops mainly due to disturbances in the outflow of bile produced by the liver.

Cholecystitis can be acute and chronic.

Why does cholecystitis occur?

This is most often associated with gallstones formed in the gallbladder that block the canal.

Cholecystitis can also be triggered by the following causes:

  • infections that enter from the intestine;
  • parasites;
  • congenital gallbladder deformity;
  • malnutrition;
  • stress and nervous tension;
  • adiposity.

It is worth saying that cholecystitis can be acute and chronic. Chronic develops gradually, acute suddenly and often with biliary colic.

Cholecystitis symptoms

The main sign of the cholecystitis most patients complain of is pain under the ribs in the right side, especially when changing the position of the body, which can also be felt in the right shoulder, shoulder blade, neck.

Often the disease makes shows after the feast (after 3-5 hours). Another attack of cholecystitis can be caused shaking (a trip on a bad road, a bike ride).

Other cholecystitis symptoms:

  • nausea and vomiting;
  • bloating (flatulence);
  • diarrhea (diarrhea), especially after eating fatty, fried or smoked foods;
  • high body temperature to 37-39°C;
  • chills.

Treatment of cholecystitis

If any disease is not treated timely, its development can have serious consequences. In the case of cholecystitis complications may occur: hepatitis, fistulas, gangrene, rupture of the bladder, etc.

Conservative treatment of cholecystitis is aimed primarily at infection suppressing and at increasing bile flow. A significant role in the conservative treatment of cholecystitis plays a diet with the exception of mechanically and chemically irritating food. In acute cholecystitis and in the absence of the effect of conservative therapy, surgical treatment is used. In the chronic course of the disease, surgery (cholecystectomy) is performed according to certain indications after a thorough comprehensive examination of the patient.

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